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ES: G4 Earth Changes

Rock Layers

You’ll explore the three types of rockigneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary — and learn examples of each kind. How cool is it that one of these types is actually made out of living things! You also find out how heat, pressure, and erosion all play a part in the process that can transform igneous rock into metamorphic rock...and then back again.


Discover how rocks break down into soil and how slow, natural forces can actually change the shape of Earth’s surface. You’ll learn the four causes of mechanical weathering, as well as the difference between mechanical and chemical weathering.

You can also find out about some of the cool natural phenomena that chemical weathering can cause — like caves!


You'll be introduced to the types of forces that can cause erosion; show you the many kinds of features that erosion can form on the landscape; and explain how weathering and sandblasting leave their mark on both natural and man-made monuments. You’ll also learn about the important role that plants play in the erosion process and discover how a few waves can reshape an entire continent.

Glacial Action

You’ll learn about the conditions needed for glaciers to form and the drastic ways in which glaciers can reshape a landscape. Find out about the two different kinds of glaciers and where on Earth each can be found — here’s a hint: they’re not just in Antarctica!